The Passengers of Flight 800

This list was posted to the internet, but the version I have does not identify the researcher's name, which is why its not properly credited.

                   Boeing 747 Specifications and History

   Extracted from Boeing information page
   Note forward cargo door on newest 747, same as the oldest.
   Boeing 747 Comb:
   Two Airplanes in One
   747 Family Background
   747 Major Chronology
   747 Fact Sheet
   747-400 Background
   747-400 Freighter Background
   747-400 Freighter Fact Sheet
   Since its introduction in 1975, the Boeing 747 Combi, with its unique
   features, has helped airlines around the world meet their long-range
   passenger and cargo
   The Combi is equipped with a large (134-by-120-inch or 3.4-by-3.0-m)
   cargo door behind the left wing, plus equipment that allows passenger
   seats to be
   removed and cargo tracks to be installed, giving airlines the option
   of carrying containerized or palletized cargo on the main deck behind
   the passengers. This
   flexibility enables airlines to adapt the interior configuration to
   meet variations in seasonal markets and charter demands.
   The first of the versatile Combis went into service with Sabena
   Belgian World Airlines in early 1974. This was a standard 747-100
   passenger airplane modified
   by installation of a side cargo door so Sabena could carry combination
   passenger-cargo loads on the North Atlantic route during off-peak
   travel seasons.
   The first true 747-200 Combi off the production line was delivered to
   Air Canada in February 1975.
   Swissair was the first customer for the -300 Combi option and KLM was
   first for the -400 Combi. The stretched upper deck of the 747-300 and
   Combis can accommodate 44 more passengers than the standard 747-200B
   Cargo Handling
   The large side cargo door on the main deck permits cargo loading in
   the aft section at the same time passengers are boarded in the forward
   section. A locked
   partition separates the passenger compartment from the cargo area,
   which is accessible only by the crew.
   Roller trays on the 747's aft floor facilitate loading of 8-foot-wide
   containers or pallets up to 20 feet long. The Combi main deck can
   accommodate any
   container or pallet used in the aviation industry today in lengths up
   to 20 feet (6.1 m).
   The Combi can handle large volume shipments such as automobiles, small
   boats, heavy machinery, drilling equipment and even small aircraft or
   Environmental control in the cargo area allows transportation of live
   animals, perishable foods and cut flowers/vegetables while maintaining
   environmental control of the passenger cabin.
   The versatile Boeing 747 Combi satisfies a variety of requirements.
   The conversion possibilities in the -300 and -400 range from a
   configuration to a 7-pallet/266-passenger configuration. An airline
   can offer more frequent 747 service earlier to both the passenger and
   cargo markets.
   One reason for the Combi's popularity is that it can be scheduled
   through the airport with the same turnaround time as any other
   passenger 747. Cargo
   operations do not interfere with passenger service because main deck
   cargo loading occurs in an area of the airplane where there is
   normally no activity. This
   simultaneous passenger and cargo loading/unloading operation is
   possible because of the stability allowed by the fore and aft
   arrangement of the wing and
   body landing gear.
   The side-cargo-door-equipped 747 Combi is one of four types of
   superjets that can carry cargo on the main deck. The others are the
   747C convertible
   passenger-cargo aircraft and the 747 Freighter, both of which are
   equipped with hinged noses for straight-in freight loading, and some
   747 ex-passenger
   aircraft converted to all-freight configuration through installation
   of a main-deck side cargo door and a strengthened cargo floor.
   The 747-400 Combi incorporates additional fire protection and the
   improved features of the 747-400 airplane. These include a two-crew
   digital flight deck,
   advanced engines, wingtip extension with winglet and new interiors.
   Because of these improvements, the 747-400 Combi is now the only 747
   Combi in
   747-400 Combi General Characteristics
   Wing Span
   211 feet 5 inches (64.44 m)
   231 feet 10 inches (70.66 m)
   Fuselage Width (external)
   21 feet 4 inches (6.5 m)
   Pratt & Whitney PW4056
   56,750 pounds maximum rated thrust to
   92 degrees Fahrenheit
   General Electric
   57,900 pounds maximum rated thrust to
   90 degrees Fahrenheit
   Rolls Royce RB 211-524G
   58,000 pounds maximum rated thrust to
   86 degrees Fahrenheit
   Maximum Taxi Weight
   to 878,000 pounds (398,260 kg)
   Maximum Takeoff Gross
   to 875,000 pounds (396,900 kg)
   Side Cargo Door
   11 feet 2 inches (3.4 m) wide, 10 feet (3.0
   m) high
   ^ Commercial Airplanes | The Boeing Company
   Evolution of the Boeing 747
   747 Major Chronology
   747 Fact Sheet
   747-400 Background
   747-400 Combi
   747-400 Freighter Background
   747-400 Freighter Fact Sheet
   One thing about the 747 is clear: the more things appear to stay the
   same with this magnificent giant, the more things change.
   Today's 747 looks like the first Boeing 747. It's big with graceful
   lines. Its characteristic fuselage hump draws it forward, giving the
   illusion of
   movement when the aircraft is still. It dwarfs the people who design
   and build it. It looms over service vehicles that approach it. Even
   other commercial
   airliners, in comparison, look small.
   It's still the largest commercial airplane in the world, with
   approximately 6 million parts. And, like the first 747, today's
   airplane still is a product that,
   at its core, answers customer needs.
   But today's 747 is an entirely different airplane from 747 No. 1.
   After all, a product that has accumulated 17.9 billion miles (28.8
   billion km) of airborne
   experience, in an industry that has changed profoundly, is bound to
   747 Legacy
   The venerable Boeing 747 has changed the face of aviation forever. The
   airplane, from the beginning, has relied on 1,101 domestic and
   suppliers. With 79 percent of its sales outside the United States --
   nearly $98.3 billion in today's dollars -- it has contributed to the
   positive ledger of
   the U.S. balance of trade.
   But perhaps its most poignant legacy is that the Boeing 747 has
   brought great quantities of people together for commerce, peace and
   relief. The 747
   has carried enough passengers to equal one-fourth of the world's
   Today's 747-400
   The FAA certified today's version of the 747, the -400, on Jan. 10,
   1989; Northwest Airlines put the airplane into service 30 days later.
   The airplane is available in three maximum takeoff gross weights up to
   875,000 pounds (396,893 kg). It typically carries 420 passengers in a
   three-class arrangement and has a range of more than 8,000 miles
   (12,800 km).
   In appearance, its very similar to its 25-year-old predecessor, the
   first 747. Except for a slightly larger wingspan and 6-foot-high
   (1.8-m high) winglets
   at the wingtips, and the added 23 feet (7 m) of upper deck, the
   747-400 and the 747-100 could be twins. But inside, the two airplanes
   are separated
   by 20 years of technology, which translates into added value for the
   On the flight deck, digital avionics have replaced the 747-100's
   analog systems. Programmable displays and simpler cockpit procedures
   have reduced
   crew workload so only two officers are necessary. And the 971 lights,
   gauges and switches of the first 747 have been reduced to 365.
   Cost-effective technologies incorporated into the airplane improve
   airline economics, reliability, maintainability and schedule
   Advanced engines are the Pratt & Whitney PW4000, the General Electric
   CF6-80C2 and the Rolls-Royce RB211-524G, rated in the
   56,000-pound-thrust category.
   Boeing now offers four versions of the 747-400: the all-passenger
   version; the Freighter; a Domestic version for short, high-density
   routes; and the
   Combi -- which simultaneously carries passengers and cargo on the main
   Passenger 747s
   Pan Am launched the 747 program in 1966 with an order for 25 of the
   huge 747-100s. The -200B developed from that, capable of lifting even
   Powered by four Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines of 47,000 pounds thrust
   each, range was pegged at 6,600 miles (10,600 km) with a "standard"
   load of 374 passengers. The 747-100B offered a 710,000-pound (319,500
   kg) maximum takeoff weight. Altogether, Boeing delivered 167 of the
   747-100s, nine -100Bs and 225 new 747-200s in all-passenger
   The next major external change to the 747 came with the 747-300, with
   its extended upper deck. Capable of carrying 10 percent more
   passengers, its
   improved engines reduced fuel burn by 25 percent per passenger. Boeing
   delivered 56 passenger-only 747-300s, beginning in 1983.
   In 1989, Boeing introduced the -400, now the only 747 type available.
   747 Freighters
   Boeing has been the world leader in civilian air cargo since the 707
   Freighter was introduced 30 years ago. From the beginning, the 747 was
   to serve as an all-cargo transport. The first 747 Freighter could
   easily carry 100 tons (90,000 kg) across the Atlantic Ocean or across
   the United
   States. Its operating cost was 35 percent less per ton mile than 707s
   configured as freighters. Starting in 1972, Boeing delivered 73 of the
   Boeing first offered all the advances of the 747-400 in an all-cargo
   configuration in 1989. The -400 Freighter can carry 26 more tons
   (23,590 kg) of
   cargo or fly 1,200 nmi farther than its predecessors. The first
   747-400 Freighter was delivered to Cargolux on Nov. 17, 1993.
   In addition, 52 existing 747s have been converted into freighters
   after serving many productive years as passenger planes.
   The Boeing 747 provides 31 percent of the world's freighter fleet
   capability and has provided decades of U.S. Air Force airlift service,
   including bulk and
   oversized cargo delivery during Operation Desert Storm.
   Passenger/Freighter Mixes
   The 747-200 Convertible responded to airlines' needs for a flexible,
   large airplane that could carry passengers or cargo, or combinations
   of both. The
   Convertible was certified by the FAA on April 24, 1973. Boeing
   delivered 13 versatile 747-200Cs.
   The "Combination" 747s began service in March 1975. They were
   passenger airplanes with a large side cargo door on the main deck.
   This allowed airlines
   to make better utilization of their routes during different parts of
   the year. Boeing delivered 78 new -200 Combis, 21 later -300 Combis
   and, through
   June 1993, 35 of the -400 Combis.
   747s With Special Assignments
   Perhaps the most radical alteration to the 747's external appearance
   is the 747 Special Performance, or SP. Designed to fly higher, faster
   and farther
   than any 747 model of its time, the fuselage was shortened by 48 feet
   (14.6 m). The SP was designed for 331 passengers over distances up to
   6,800 miles (10,900 km). The FAA certified the 747SP on Feb. 4, 1976,
   and Boeing delivered 45.
   Boeing developed the -400 Domestic version of the 747 so the carriers
   of Japan could modernize short-range, high-density 747 networks.
   Domestics typically carry 569 passengers in a two-class configuration.
   And they do so at 15 percent better fuel efficiency per seat than the
   version introduced in 1973 -- the 747-100 Short Range.
   Boeing has designed or modified 15 of the big 747s for special
   purposes. Among them are two -200 models delivered as presidential
   airplanes -- Air
   Force Ones -- and four -200s, designated E-4s, delivered to the U.S.
   Air Force as airborne emergency command and control posts. Another 747
   modified to ferry the U.S. space shuttle between California and
   Florida. Other 747s have been demonstrated as tankers able to refuel
   other airplanes in
   In addition, Boeing completed modifications to 19 existing 747-100s to
   Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) configurations in 1990. If called into
   service by
   the Air Force, the all-passenger planes can be converted to freighters
   in less than 48 hours.
   The original 747, Line No. 1, was donated by Boeing to Seattle's
   Museum of Flight. On lease to Boeing, it often is used as a flying
   test bed for
   aeronautical developments.
   ^ Commercial Airplanes | The Boeing Company
   Chronology of the Boeing 747
   747 Family Background
   747 Fact Sheet
   747-400 Background
   747-400 Combi
   747-400 Freighter Background
   747-400 Freighter Fact Sheet
   Spring 1963
   Boeing engineering group forms to develop a large
   airplane to meet passenger and cargo growth predicted
   for the 1970s.
   March 1966
   Boeing Board of Directors decides to proceed on 747
   April 13, 1966
   Pan Am announces a $525 million order for 25 Boeing
   747s, effectively launching the 747 program.
   June 1966
   Boeing purchases 780 acres adjacent to Paine Field in
   Everett, Wash., to build the 747 production plant.
   September 1966
   Airline orders for 747 reach $1.8 billion.
   Jan. 3, 1967
   First production workers arrive at the Everett plant.
   Nov. 21, 1967
   First 747 nose section arrives in Everett from Boeing
   plant in Wichita, Kan.
   Mid-June, 1968
   Pratt & Whitney's new JT9D engine, developed for the
   747, is tested on the wings of a Boeing B-52.
   Sept. 30, 1968
   First 747 rolls out of the factory.
   Feb. 9, 1969
   First flight of the 747.
   June 1969
   First 747 participates in Paris Air show.
   Dec. 30, 1969
   Boeing 747 certified by U.S. Federal Aviation
   Administration for commercial service.
   Jan. 21, 1970
   747 commercial service begun by Pan Am on New
   York-London route.
   July 16, 1970
   Millionth passenger carried on a 747.
   January 1971
   747 flies 71 million miles in first year.
   Feb. 11, 1971
   Delivery of 100th Boeing 747.
   December 1971
   First 747-200 Freighter rolls out.
   September 1972
   747s log 1 million flight hours.
   Oct. 7, 1973
   First 747SR (for Short Range) enters service with
   Japan Airlines between Tokyo and Naha, Okinawa.
   November 1974
   250th 747 rolls out.
   May 1975
   Roll out of the first 747SP (for Special Performance).
   July 4, 1975
   First flight of 747SP. Attains top speed of Mach .92.
   October 1975
   747 fleet carries 100 millionth passenger.
   Feb. 18, 1977
   A specially equipped 747 carries the U.S. space shuttle
   for the first time.
   Nov. 19, 1980
   500th 747 rolls out.
   March 28, 1983
   747-300 enters commercial service with Swissair.
   October 1985
   Boeing announces the 12th version of its jumbo jet
   family, the advanced-technology 747-400.
   June 5, 1986
   U.S. Air Force orders two specially equipped 747-200s
   to transport the president of the United States.
   Jan. 26, 1988
   First 747-400 rolls out on the same day that the first
   737-400 rolls out.
   April 29, 1988
   First flight of the advanced-technology 747-400.
   March 28, 1990
   First 747 flies into temporary retirement at Seattle's
   Museum of Flight.
   August 1990
   The first of two presidential 747s is delivered to the Air
   Aug. 1990 - March
   A fleet of 747s participate in Operation Desert Storm,
   carrying 644,000 troops and 220,000 tons of
   equipment to and from the Middle East as part of a
   United Nations effort to restore peace in the region.
   Feb. 5. 1992
   The first 747 flies out of retirement as part of a
   program to flight test the engines for the 777, Boeing's
   newest jetliner.
   Dec. 1992 - Jan.
   A fleet of 747s participate in Operation Restore Hope,
   transporting 13,609 troops on a United Nations
   mission to end unrest in Somalia.
   May 4, 1993
   First flight of the 747-400 Freighter, the newest
   member of the Boeing 747 family.
   Sept. 10, 1993
   1,000th Boeing 747 rolls out.
   Oct. 12, 1993
   1000th Boeing 747, a 747-400, delivers to Singapore
   Nov. 17, 1993
   First 747-400 Freighter delivers to Cargolux.
   ^ Commercial Airplanes | The Boeing Company
   Boeing 747 Facts
   747 Family Background
   747 Major Chronology
   747-400 Background
   747-400 Combi
   747-400 Freighter Background
   747-400 Freighter Fact Sheet
   There are 6 million parts in the 747. Three million parts are
   fasteners, and about half of those are rivets.
   Airline cargo handlers use the 747's lower-lobe baggage and cargo
   handling system to load or unload 85,000 pounds (38,500 kg) of baggage
   -- the equivalent of 3,400 pieces of luggage -- in less than seven
   The wing area of the 747-400 is 5,600 square feet (524.9 square
   meters), an area large enough to hold 45 medium-sized automobiles.
   The diameter of the 747 engine nose cowl is 8 feet 6 inches (2.6 m).
   Four World War I vintage JN4-D "Jenny" aircraft could be lined up on
   each of the Boeing 747 wings.
   One wing of the 747 weighs 28,000 pounds (12,700 kg), 10 times the
   weight of Boeing's first airplane, the 1916 B & W.
   More than 15,000 hours of wind-tunnel testing were completed on the
   first 747.
   The 747 flight test program leading to certification for commercial
   service in December 1969 employed five airplanes, lasted 10 months and
   required more than 1,500 hours of flying.
   Seventy-five thousand engineering drawings were used to produce the
   first 747.
   There are 15 models of the 747. These include all-passenger versions,
   passenger and cargo configurations and all-cargo models. The newest
   model, the 747-400 Freighter, rolled out in February 1993 and
   delivered later that year.
   The 747-400 contains the greatest passenger interior volume of any
   commercial airliner at 31,285 cubic feet (876 cubic meters), the
   of more than three 1,500 square foot houses.
   The 747 has sixteen 49-inch main landing gear tires and two nose
   landing gear tires.
   The 747 has been in service since Jan. 21, 1970, carrying more than
   1.8 billion passengers more than 24.7 billion miles.
   The tail height of a 747, at 63 feet 8 inches (19.41 m), is equivalent
   to that of a six-story building.
   The Wright Brothers' first flight at Kitty Hawk could have been
   performed within the 150-foot (45-m) economy section of a 747-400.
   Engine thrust on the 747-400 has grown from 43,500 (19,730 kg) to
   approximately 60,600 pounds (27,490 kg) per new generation engine.
   By comparison, total takeoff thrust of the four-engine 707-120 was
   54,000 pounds (24,300 kg).
   The first 747 had a design range of 5,290 miles (8,510 km). The -400
   has a design range of 8,290 miles (13,340 km).
   The 747-400 consumes 8 percent to 13 percent less fuel than the
   747-300, depending on engine selection. This is an improvement of up
   to 17
   percent over the first 747s.
   The difference between the maximum takeoff gross weight (MTOGW) of the
   first 747 and the -400 is 165,000 pounds (78,840 kg). This is
   more than the MTOGW of the 737-400.
   There are 365 lights, gauges and switches in the 747-400 flight deck,
   down from 971 on earlier 747 models. That's fewer indicators for a
   four-engine airplane than on some twin-engine jets.
   The 747-400 can carry more than 57,000 gallons of fuel (215,745 L).
   This makes it possible for the airplane to fly extremely long routes,
   as between San Francisco and Sydney.
   The 3,300 gallons (12,490 liters) of fuel carried in a tank in the
   horizontal (tail) stabilizer can take the 747-400 an extra 400 miles.
   How much weight does an additional 6-foot (1.8 m) wingtip extension
   and winglet add to the 747-400 wing? NONE! A weight savings of
   approximately 5,000 pounds (2,270 k) was achieved in the wing by using
   new aluminum alloys, which offset the weight increase of the wingtip
   extension and winglet.
   Redesigned "flexible" cabin interiors not only improve passenger
   conveniences and appeal, but allow airlines to rearrange seats and
   configuration overnight (in 8 hours). They also permit 48-hour
   conversion times for changes in galley and lavatory locations.
   According to one 747 operator, no less than five and a half tons of
   food supplies and more than 50,000 inflight service items are needed
   on a
   typical international flight.
   Engine noise from today's 747-400 is half what it was on the original
   airplanes delivered in 1970.
   ^ Commercial Airplanes | The Boeing Company
   The Boeing 747-400:
   World's Largest Commercial Jetliner
   747 Family Background
   747 Major Chronology
   747 Fact Sheet
   747-400 Combi
   747-400 Freighter Background
   747-400 Freighter Fact Sheet
   The Boeing 747-400 incorporates evolving technology into the world's
   most modern and fuel-efficient airliner in commercial operation.
   With the same fuselage dimensions as the 747-300, the -400 delivers
   more range, better fuel economy and lower operating costs. Its range
   of 8,290 statute miles (13,340 km) is 1,150 statute miles (1,850 km)
   more than the 747-300. It consumes 8 percent to 13 percent less fuel
   the -300 model, an improvement of up to 17 percent per seat over the
   older 747s currently in service.
   The first -400 was delivered in January 1989 to lead-off customer
   Northwest Airlines.
   The 747-400 embodies advances in aerodynamics, structural materials,
   avionics and interior design.
   Aerodynamics and Structural Materials
   The most noticeable aerodynamic improvement, designed to reduce fuel
   burn and extend the 747-400's range, is the 6-foot longer wing with a
   6-foot-high winglet angled upward and slightly outward. The winglet
   provides the effect of having an even greater wingspan without
   outgrowing the
   standard airport slot. The wingtip extension and winglet offers a fuel
   mileage improvement of about 3 percent.
   Graphite-epoxy materials, currently used on Boeing 737-300, 757 and
   767 airplanes, have resulted in a durable and lightweight winglet. The
   and aluminum winglet saves 60 pounds (27 kg) per airplane compared to
   an all-aluminum structure.
   The wing-to-body fairing has been recontoured for drag improvement.
   Additional efficiency is incorporated in newly designed nacelles and
   struts for the
   advanced engines, the General Electric CF6-80C2, Pratt & Whitney
   PW4000 or the Rolls-Royce RB211-524G, which provide a minimum 56,000
   pounds of thrust.
   An optional 3,300 U.S. gallon (12,490 L) fuel tank in the horizontal
   tail boosts the -400's range up to an additional 403 statute miles
   (350 nautical
   miles or 650 km), for long fuel capacity limited routes. The 747-400's
   8,290 statute mile (7,200 nautical mile) range makes possible non-stop
   service with typical full (420) passenger, three-class payload on such
   routes as London-Tokyo, Singapore-London and Los Angeles-Sydney.
   Use of advanced materials allows considerable structural weight
   reductions throughout the 747-400. Metal flooring previously used in
   the passenger
   cabin has been replaced by light, tough graphite composite floor
   Structural carbon brakes, offered on the 757 and 767, are standard on
   the 747-400. Technical advantages include improved energy absorption
   characteristics and wear resistance. Estimated weight savings, using
   the new brakes, on the -400's 16 main landing gear wheels is 1,800
   (816 kg).
   Higher strength aluminum alloys with improved fatigue life, introduced
   on the 757 and 767, are now incorporated in the 747-400's wing skins,
   stringers and lower-spar chords, achieving a weight savings of
   approximately 4,200 pounds (1,900 kg).
   Flight Deck
   The 747-400 flight deck provides even more flexibility than the
   successful 757/767 design. The 747-300 three-crew member analog
   cockpit with
   electro-mechanical instruments was transformed into a fully digital,
   two-crew flight deck with cathode ray tube (CRT) displays.
   Six 8-by-8-inch (200-by-200-mm) CRTs display airplane flight control,
   navigation, engine and crew alerting functions. The larger CRTs allow
   information to be displayed with fewer instruments. Flight deck
   lights, gauges and switches have been reduced from 971 (in the
   747-300) to 365 on
   the -400. Flight crew work load is designed to be one-half to
   one-third that of former 747 models.
   Automatic or manual display switching is used as backup in the event
   of an individual CRT failure. The engine indicating and crew alerting
   (EICAS) can call up the status or schematics of various systems at any
   time on one of the CRTs.
   Crews can now obtain an update of the aircraft's mechanical condition
   while in flight. Previously the information was only available to
   workers when the airplane was parked.
   Interior Design
   Interiors of the 747-400 have been redesigned to improve passenger
   convenience and appeal. Ceiling and sidewall panels have been
   recontoured with
   new, lighter weight materials that provide an open, airy look.
   Passenger stowage capacity has grown to 15.9 cubic feet (0.45 cubic
   meters) in each
   60-inch (152 cm) outboard stowage bin or 2.95 cubic feet (0.082 cubic
   meters) per passenger.
   New laminate materials are designed to meet Boeing fire worthiness
   goals. A new thermoplastic blend reduces smoke and toxicity levels in
   the event of
   fire, and upper-deck ceiling panels are made of improved polyester and
   phenolic sheet molding materials instead of polyester.
   Interior flexibility permits airline operators to relocate class
   dividers and galley and lavatory modules more quickly to serve market
   Lavatory installation is simplified by a vacuum waste system and
   additional locations for galleys and lavatories are available. These
   "quick change
   features" allow major rearrangement within 48 hours, while seats and
   compartments can be changed overnight.
   A revised 747-400 air distribution system increases the main deck
   cabin air distribution zones from three to five, and ventilation rates
   can be
   regulated based on passenger density in each zone.
   For the first time on any airliner, an optional overhead cabin crew
   rest area uses space in the rear of the fuselage above the aft
   lavatories. This area,
   which can be configured for eight bunks and two seats, provides
   privacy as well as comfort for off-duty flight attendants. By using
   this compartment,
   10 more profit seats are available on the main deck of the aircraft.
   Increased Range and Flexibility
   An 875,000-pound (396,890 kg) maximum takeoff weight option is being
   offered, a 75,000-pound (34,020 kg) increase over the baseline -400.
   This provides an increased range over the 747-300 of 1,000 nautical
   miles (1,150 statute miles or 1,850 km) with the additional tail fuel.
   A new 1,450-horsepower auxiliary power unit (APU) provides an
   estimated 35 percent to 40 percent reduction in fuel consumption,
   better air
   pressurization performance on hot days, higher electrical output and
   reduced noise levels over the prior APU. These units, mounted in the
   rear fuselage
   of 747s, supply pressurized air for air conditioning and engine
   starting while the airplane is on the ground plus electrical power to
   operate lights and
   other requirements during stops. The new APU also can be retrofitted
   to earlier 747s.
   In early 1989 airline customers were offered even more flexibility in
   the 747 family with the introduction of the 747-400 Combi. The Combi
   is "two
   airplanes in one," carrying passengers forward and cargo aft on the
   main deck. Because cargo and passengers can be loaded simultaneously,
   Combi adapts easily to meet changing passenger and cargo traffic
   demands. KLM was the first to purchase the 747-400 Combi.
   The 747-400 high-capacity (569 passengers) Domestic went into
   commercial service with Japan Airlines in the fall of 1991. This model
   structural improvements to accommodate the increased takeoff and
   landing cycles encountered in short-range intra-Japan operations.
   An all-cargo version was added to this family when Air France
   announced an order for four 747-400 Freighters in Sept. 1989. Cargolux
   took delivery of
   the first Freighter in Nov. 1993.
   Performance Summary
   420 (21 first, 77 business, 322 economy class)
   6,025 cubic feet (170.8 cubic meters) all
   containers or
   5,332 cubic feet (151.0 cubic meters) 5 pallets, 14
   LD-1 containers + bulk
   Engines (four)
   Pratt & Whitney PW4056
   General Electric CF6-80C2 BIF
   Rolls Royce RB211-524G
   Thrust (pounds)
   56,000 nominal
   Fuel Capacity
   53,765 to 57,285 gallons (203,520 to 216,850
   (varies by engine type)
   Maximum Takeoff
   800,000 pounds (362,880 kg)
   833,000 pounds (377,840 kg)
   850,000 pounds (385,560 kg)
   875,000 pounds (396,890 kg)
   Design Range
   8,290 statute miles (13,340 km)
   Basic Specifications
   Wing Span
   211 feet 5 inches (64.44 m)
   Overall Length
   231 feet 10.25 inches (70.66 m)
   Tail Height
   63 feet 8 inches (19.41 m)
   Body Width
   21 feet 4 inches (6.5 m)
   20 feet (6.1 m)
   ^ Commercial Airplanes | The Boeing Company
   The 747-400 Freighter:
   Largest Commercial Cargo Transport in Scheduled Service
   747 Family Background
   747 Major Chronology
   747 Fact Sheet
   747-400 Background
   747-400 Combi
   747-400 Freighter Fact Sheet
   Boeing's new-technology 747-400 Freighter is the all-cargo transport
   member of the 747-400 family. It can carry more cargo farther than any
   commercial jet freighter, with the lowest operating cost per ton-mile.
   All of the advances introduced in the new 747-400 passenger version
   are available in the all-cargo configuration.
   The -400 Freighter can carry 124 tons (113,000 kg) of cargo more than
   4,400 nautical miles. An additional 26 tons of payload or
   1,200-nautical-mile range is possible compared to Boeing's 747-200
   Freighter. And the new model burns 10 percent to 16 percent less fuel
   than the
   earlier model, thanks to more fuel-efficient engines and larger wings.
   Advanced materials allow considerable structural weight reductions,
   improved damage tolerance and fatigue resistance throughout both the
   and passenger models of the 747-400.
   The two-crew flight deck and reduced maintenance costs for avionics
   and engines provide further savings in direct operating costs.
   Cargo-Handling Improvements
   The 747-400F has the same upper deck as the -200F. However, the upper
   deck floor was revised to make room for two additional 10-foot-high (3
   pallets on the main deck.
   By relocating the upper deck access ladder and revising guide rails
   and tie-down equipment, an additional pallet position was created in
   the nose of the
   aircraft. These changes resulted in 774 cubic feet (21.9 cubic meters)
   more cargo space on the main deck than on the -200F.
   Two additional LD-1 or LD-3 containers will fit into the aft lower
   hold and, depending on the pallet and container mix, two additional
   containers in the
   forward lower hold -- adding up to 700 cubic feet (19.8 cubic meters)
   of additional containerized cargo volume in the lower hold.
   The -400 Freighter's improved powered cargo-handling system makes for
   smooth, fast loading and unloading.
   Five airlines have ordered a total of 18 747-400 Freighters: Asiana,
   Cargolux, Cathay Pacific, KLM Royal Dutch Airline and Singapore
   Cargolux Airlines was the first to put the advanced freighter into
   service in November 1993, followed by Cathay Pacific, Singapore
   Airlines and Asiana.
   Eleven of the new freighters are currently in service.
   747-400 Freighter's Heritage
   Boeing has been the world leader in civilian air cargo since the 707
   Freighter was introduced more than 30 years ago. From its beginning in
   1966, the
   747 family was designed to include an all-cargo transport.
   The first 747 Freighter, the 747-200F, could easily carry 100 tons
   (90,000 kg) across the Atlantic Ocean or across the United States. Its
   operating cost was 35 percent less per ton mile than 707s that were
   configured as freighters.
   Boeing delivered 73 of the 747-200 Freighters between 1972 and 1991.
   In addition, 75 existing 747s have been converted into freighters
   after serving
   many productive years as passenger planes.
   The Boeing 747 provides 31 percent of the world's freighter fleet
   capability. In addition, Boeing completed modifications to 19 existing
   747-100s to Civil
   Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) configurations in 1990. If called into
   service by the Air Force, the all-passenger commercial planes can be
   converted to cargo
   service in less than 48 hours. These 747s were used to carry troops,
   bulk and oversized cargo during Operation Desert Storm.
   ^ Commercial Airplanes | The Boeing Company
   Boeing 747-400 Freighter Fact Sheet
   747 Family Background
   747 Major Chronology
   747 Fact Sheet
   747-400 Background
   747-400 Combi
   747-400 Freighter
   Brief Description
   The 747-400 Freighter is the all-cargo transport member of the 747-400
   family. It can transport more cargo farther than any other commercial
   freighter. It also has the lowest operating cost per ton-mile of all
   freighters, with fuel burn per pound of payload more than 15 percent
   better than the
   747-200 Freighter, which ceased production in 1991.
   Weights and Ranges
   (carrying 124 tons of payload)
   Maximum Takeoff Weight
   800,000 pounds
   3,200 nautical miles
   833,000 pounds
   850,000 pounds
   875,000 pounds
   3,760 nautical miles
   4,050 nautical miles
   4,450 nautical miles
   Cargo Volume
   Main Deck
   21,347 cubic feet
   Lower Hold
   5,600 cubic feet
   520 cubic feet
   27,467 cubic feet
   Main deck nose and side cargo doors are basic.
   56,500 to 60,600
   Two: pilot, co-pilot
   Six cathode ray tubes
   231 feet 10 inches
   211 feet 5 inches
   Tail Height
   63 feet 8 inches
   Exterior fuselage diameter
   21 feet 3 inches
   Interior Cross-Section
   20 feet 3 inches
   First Flight
   May 4, 1993
   First Delivery
   Nov. 17, 1993, Cargolux
   747-400 Freighter Orders
   CF6-80C2B1F (first delivery)
   Cathay Pacific
   Singapore Airlines
   Korean Airlines

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