"I know no safe depository of the ultimate powers of society but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them, but to inform their discretion by education." -- Thomas Jefferson on popular sovereignty, letter to W.C. Jarvis, 1820.



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April 24

Please forgive the occasional duplicates as this is a compilation from multiple sources.


624 Death of Mellitus, third Archbishop of Canterbury

709 Death of Wilfrid, English archbishop and saint

709 Wilfried, bishop of York, dies at about age 76.

729 Egbertus, English bishop/saint, dies in Iona at age 89.

858 Nicolas I succeeds Benedict III as Catholic Pope.

1061 Halley's Comet sparks English monk to predict country'll be destroyed.

1077 Geza I King of Hungary (1074-7), dies.

1185 Antoku Taira emperor of Japan (1180-85), drowns.

1185 Battle at Danoura: Yoshitsune Minamoto's fleet beats imperial fleet.

1288 Jews of Yroyes France are accused of ritual murder.

1311 General Malik Kafur returns to Delhi after campaign in South India.

1338 Death of Marquis Theodore I of Montferrat (b. 1291)

1342 Death of Pope Benedict XII (b. 1285)

1364 Pope Urbabus V names John V van Virneburg as bishop of Utrecht.

1524 Duke of Bourbon drives Admiral Bonnivet out of Milan.

1530 Jacopo Sannazaro Italian poet (De partu Virginis), dies.

1533 Birth of William I of Orange (d. 1584)

1538 Birth of Gugliemo Gonzaga composer.

1547 Battle of Mnhlberg Emperor Karel V versus ruler Johan F the Brave.

1558 Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland marries French crown prince Fran?ois.

1570 Battles between Spanish troops and followers of sultan Suleiman.

1576 Birth of San Vicente de Pa?l.

1580 Birth of Vincent de Paul, French saint (d. 1660)

1594 Birth of Benedikt Lechler composer.

1596 Pacificatie of Ireland drawn.

1617 Carlo Concino French marquis of Ancre/state advisor, murdered.

1620 Birth of John Graunt statistician, founder of science of demography.

1656 Death of Thomas Fincke, Danish mathematician and physicist (b. 1561)

1670 Birth of Christian Ludwig Boxberg composer.

1704 The first regular newspaper in the United States, the Boston, Massachusetts New-Letter, is published.

1706 Birth of Giovanni Battista Martini composer.

1718 Birth of Nathaniel Hone, Irish-born painter (d. 1784)

1721 Birth of Johann Philipp Kirnberger German composer, baptised.

1731 Daniel Defoe English novelist (Robinson Crusoe), dies.

1731 Death of Daniel Defoe, English writer (b. 1660)

1736 Death of Prince Eugene of Savoy, French-born Austrian general (b. 1663)

1742 Birth of Roman Hoffstetter composer.

1743 Birth of Edmund Cartwright England, cleric, inventor (power loom).

1750 Birth of Simon-Antoine-Jean Lhuillier Swiss mathematician.

1758 Florian Wrastill composer, dies at age 41.

1762 Russia and Prussia signs peace treaty.

1766 Birth of Robert Bailey Thomas founded Farmer's Almanac.

1769 Birth of Arthur Wellesley General/Duke of Wellington.

1773 Birth of Harman W Muntinghe lawyer/Dutch colonial director.

1776 Carolus van de Abeele Flemish Jesuit, dies at age 84.

1776 Giuseppi Paolucci composer, dies at age 49.

1779 Death of Eleazar Wheelock, American founder of Dartmouth College (b. 1711)

1791 Birth of Nikolaj A Bestuzhev Russia, writer/painter (Account about Holland).

1792 "La Marseillaise" composed by Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle.

1796 Birth of K L Immermann writer.

1800 Library of Congress is established with $5,000 allocation.

1800 The United States Library of Congress is established when President John Adams signs legislation to appropriate $5,000 to purchase "such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress".

1801 First performance of Joseph Haydn's oratorio "Die Jahreszeiten".

1804 Birth of Thomas Oliver Selfridge Commander (Union Navy).

1807 Birth of Charles Ferguson Smith Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1862.

1814 Birth of Angela Burdett-Coutts philanthropist extrordinaire.

1815 Birth of Anthony Trollope England, novelist/poet (Barchester Towers).

1822 Birth of Erastus Barnard Tyler Brevet Major General (Union volunteers).

1823 EugFne Scribes "Le Menteur VTridique", premieres in Paris France.

1824 Birth of Fournier Swiss/French postage stamp forger.

1824 Herman Muntinghe theologist (History of Mankind), dies at age 71.

1827 Pierre Joseph Candielle composer, dies at age 82.

1828 Birth of Robert Brank Vance Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1899.

1829 Birth of George Peabody Estey Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1881.

1833 Patent granted for first soda fountain to Jacob Evert and George Dulty.

1834 Antonio L=pez de Santa Anna becomes President (4th time) of Mexico.

1836 Birth of Jeltje de Bosch Kemper Dutch feminist.

1837 Birth of Friedrich von Holstein German diplomat (die graue Eminenz).

1845 Birth of Carl Spitteler Switzerland, poet (Prometheus and Epimetheus/Nobel Prize 1919).

1848 Fran?ois van Campenhout Belgian composer (Braban?onne), dies at age 69.

1849 Birth of Joseph S GalliTni General (Battle of Marne)/military governor (Paris).

1850 Louis Alexandre Piccinni composer, dies at age 70.

1851 Birth of Eduardo Acevedo D?az Uruguaian writer (Ismael, Grito de Gloria).

1852 Death of Vasily Zhukovsky, Russian poet (b. 1783)

1854 Austria's Franz Joseph I marries Elisabeth A E "Sissi".

1855 Walenty Karol Kratzer composer, dies at age 75.

1856 Birth of Henri POBJ PTtain French marshal (Verdun/Vichy regime).

1862 American Civil War: A flotilla commanded by Union Admiral David Farragut passes two Confederate forts on the Mississippi River on its way to capture New Orleans, Louisiana.

1863 Skirmish at Okolona/Birmingham, Mississippi (Grierson's Raid).

1863 The Keyesville Massacre: a massacre of 53 Native American men from the Tehachapi tribe in Keyesville, California.

1864 Birth of George Alting van Geusau Director-General (PTT)/Dutch Minister of War (1918-20).

1865 Fire alarm and police telegraph system put into operation (San Francisco).

1867 Birth of Fannie Thomas became oldest known American (113 years 273 days at death).

1867 Black demonstrators stage ride-ins on Richmond Virginia streetcars.

1867 In Manhattan, Kansas, a magnitude 5.1 earthquake occurs.

1871 Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Aida" is produced (Cairo).

1872 Volcano Vesuvius erupts.

1873 Birth of Theodor K¸rner von Siegringen Austrian General/President.

1874 Birth of John Russell Pope US, architect (Jefferson Memorial).

1875 Birth of Jeno Huszka composer.

1875 Jose Maria de la Purificacion Ventura composer, dies at age 58.

1876 Birth of Erich Raeder, German naval commander (d. 1960)

1877 Birth of Charles Cuvillier composer.

1877 Last federal occupying troops withdraw from south (New Orleans).

1877 Russia declares war on Turkey through Romania.

1877 Russo-Turkish War, 1877?1878: Russia declares war on Ottoman Empire.

1878 Birth of Jean Crotti, Swiss artist (d. 1958)

1880 A bomb explodes in the Monte Carlo casino; many are wounded by glass, but no serious theft is carried out.

1880 Amateur Athletic Association, governing body for men's athletics in England and Wales, is founded in Oxford, England.

1882 Birth of Hugh Dowding, Scottish fighter pilot (d. 1970)

1883 28 Surinamers depart to Amsterdam World's Fair.

1883 Birth of Jaroslav Hasek Czechoslovakia, writer (Brave soldier Schweik) [or April 30].

1884 National Medical Association of Black physicians organizes (Atlanta Georgia).

1886 Birth of Kurt Pinthus writer.

1888 Eastman Kodak forms.

1889 Birth of [Richard] Stafford Cripps English Minister of Plane-manufacturing (1942-45).

1891 Count Helmuth K B von Moltke Prussian General/fieldmarshal, dies.

1891 Death of Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Prussian field marshal (b. 1800)

1892 Birth of Jack Hulbert Ely England; actor (Into the Blue, Bulldog Jack).

1893 Birth of Robert Harron New York City, New York; actor (Birth of a Nation, Intolerance).

1894 French cyclist Henri Desgrange rides 100km in world record 2:39:18.

1894 Philadelphia Phillies' Lave Cross hits for the cycle versus Brooklyn Dodgers.

1895 Birth of S Constantine Timoshenko Russian marshal/people's commissioner.

1895 Joshua Slocum completes around-the-world voyage in 11-m boat.

1896 Birth of Benjamin Whorf, American linguist (d. 1941)

1897 Birth of Benjamin Lee Whorf linguist (or 1797).

1897 First reporter, William Price (Washington Star), is assigned to White House.

1898 Spain declares war on US rejecting ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba.

1898 US fleet under commodore Dewey sails from Hong Kong to Philippines.

1899 Birth of Oscar Zariski, Russian-born mathematician (d. 1986)

1899 Transvaal British Uitlanders ask Queen Victoria for aid.

1900 George J D Campbell British minister of Indies (1868-74, 80-85), dies at age 76.

1900 Passing of Andrew Halliday, cable car pioneer.

1901 First American League game, Chicago White Sox beat Cleveland Indians 8-2, three other games rained out.

1903 Birth of JosT A Primo de Rivera y SaTnz de Heredia founder (Spanish Falange).

1904 Birth of Willem De Kooning Rotterdam Netherlands, artist (North Atlantic Light).

1904 Friedrich Siemens German industrial, dies at age 77.

1904 Friedrich Siemens, German industrialist (Siemens), dies.

1905 Birth of Robert Penn Warren first US poet laureate (All the King's Men).

1905 First-class Cricket debut of Jack Hobbs, Surrey versus Gentlemen (18 and 28).

1905 Washington Senators execute a triple-play and beat New York Yankees 4-3.

1906 Birth of William Joyce, Irish fascist (d. 1946)

1907 Birth of Vaclav Trojan composer.

1907 Founded by Milton S. Hershey for the exclusive use of his employees, Hersheypark opens.

1908 Birth of Marceline Day, American actress (d. 2000)

1908 Mr and Mrs Jacob Murdock become the first to travel across the US by car, they leave Los Angeles in a Packard and arrive in New York City in 32 days-5 hours-25 minutes.

1909 Birth of Bernhard Grzimek zoologist (West Germany).

1909 Harry Hillman and Lawson Robertson run 100 metre 3-legged race in 11 seconds.

1910 German Catholic youth movement Quickborn forms.

1911 Birth of Jack E Leonard Chicago Illinois, comedian (Disorderly Orderly).

1912 Justin M'Carthy politician/novelist (Miss Misanthrope), dies at age 81.

1913 The skyscraper Woolworth Building in New York City opens.

1913 The skyscraper Woolworth Building in New York City was opened.

1914 Birth of Bernard Caulfield judge.

1915 German army fires chloroform gas in Ieper.

1915 Massacre of Armenians by Turks (Armenian Martyrs Day).

1915 Pittsburgh's Frank Allen no-hits Saint Louis (Federal League), 2-0.

1915 The Armenian Genocide began when the Young Turks undertook the systematic annihilation of Armenian intellectuals and entrepreneurs within the city of Constantinople and later the entire Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire.

1916 Birth of Stanley Kauffmann New York City, New York, playwright (Red Handkerchief Man).

1916 Easter Rising begins: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led by nationalists Patrick Pearse, James Connolly, and Joseph Plunkett start a rebellion in Ireland.

1916 In Dublin, Ireland, the Irish Republican Brotherhood launches the Easter Rebellion, an armed uprising against British rule.

1917 Birth of Len Creed bookmaker.

1917 Congress passes the First Liberty Bond Act.

1917 New York Yankees lefty George Mogridge no-hits Boston Red Sox 2-1 at Fenway.

1917 Oskar Blumenthal writer, dies.

1918 The first tank-to-tank combat occurs at Villers-Bretonneux, France, when three British Mark IVs meet three German A7Vs.

1920 British Mandate over Palestine goes into effect (lasts 28 years).

1920 Polish troops attack Ukraine.

1921 Birth of Laci Boldemann composer.

1921 First municipal elections for men and women in Belgium.

1922 Birth of J D Cannon Salmon Idaho; actor (McCloud, Ike, Call to Glory).

1922 In Barnegat, New Jersey, USA an overhead explosion of comet fragment rocks buildings, shatters windows, and releases clouds of noxious gas.

1922 Richard Batka composer, dies at age 53.

1923 Colonel Jacob Schick patents Schick shavers.

1923 General harbor strike begins in New York City, New York, USA.

1924 Birth of Sir Clement Freud, British writer, radio personality, and politician

1924 Death of G. Stanley Hall, American psychologist (b. 1844)

1924 George Street, English cricket wicket keeper (one Test 1923), dies.

1926 Birth of Thorbj¸rn FSlldin, Prime Minister of Sweden

1926 Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Treaty of Berlin. If one country is attacked, the other is to remain neutral.

1927 Birth of Josy Barthel in Luxembourg; 1500 metre runner (Olympics-gold-1952).

1928 Fathometer, which measures underwater depth, patented.

1929 First non-stop England-to-India flight takes-off.

1929 Thorvald Stauning becomes premier of Denmark.

1930 Birth of Conn Findlay in Stockton, California, USA; coxswain (Olympics-2 gold/bronze-1956, 1964, 1976).

1931 Birth of Bridget Riley; British painter (op-art).

1932 German national election (NSDAP 36.3 percent in Prussia).

1933 Birth of Freddie Scott; American songwriter/singer ("Cry to Me").

1933 First major league player to get four consecutive doubles in 9 innings (Dick Bartell).

1934 Birth of Shirley MacLaine, American actress and author

1935 Birth of Louis Keith in Chicago, Illinois, USA; physician (expert on multiple-births).

1936 Birth of Jill Ireland, British actress (d. 1990)

1937 Birth of Joe Henderson American jazz saxophonist (d. 2001)

1938 Death of George Grey Barnard, American sculptor (b. 1863)

1938 Lindenheuvel soccer team forms.

1940 Birth of David Larter; cricket player (two-metre tall England pace bowler).

1941 Birth of John Williams in Melbourne, Australia; guitarist (Academy Award).

1941 British army begins evacuation of Greece.

1941 Dutch Prince Bernhard becomes a British Royal Air Force pilot.

1941 The Greek government surrenders to Germany.

1941 World War II: Operation Demon ? The United Kingdom begins evacuating Greece.

1942 Birth of Richard M Daley; American politician (mayor-Democrat-Chicago).

1942 Death of Karin Boye, Swedish author (b. 1900)

1943 Birth of Richard Sterban in Camden, New Jersey, USA; country singer (Oak Ridge Boys - "Elvira").

1943 Gerardus H de Hare, socialist vicar, dies at age 63.

1944 Birth of [Bernard] Saint Clair Lee [Calhoun]; American singer ("Rock the Boat").

1944 British Royal Air Force bombs Munich, Germany.

1944 Death of William Stephens, U.S. political figure (b. 1859)

1944 First Boeing B-29 arrives in China "over the Hump".

1945 Albert B "Happy" Chandler is named second baseball commissioner.

1945 Anton de Kom, Suriname resistance fighter, dies at age 47.

1945 Birth of Doug Clifford in Palo Alto, California, USA; rock drummer (Creedence Clearwater Revival - "Proud Mary").

1946 Eleven players (Tinker, Evers, Chance, Burkett, McCarthy, Waddell, Plank, Walsh, Chesbro, Griffith, and McGinnity) are named to Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame.

1947 Birth of Glenn Cornick; rock bassist (Jethro Tull - "Thick as a Brick").

1947 Death of Willa Cather, American writer (b. 1873)

1948 Birth of Benzion Freshwater; English multi-millionaire.

1949 Birth of Wilfrido [RadamTs] Vargas [Mart?nez] Altamira in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic; Spanish singer ("El Barbarazo?").

1950 Independent republic of South Molukkas declared.

1950 The Desert Inn hotel and casino opens on the Las Vegas strip, Nevada, USA.

1950 US President Harry Truman denies there are communists in US government.

1951 Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Sacramento Women's Golf Invitational Open.

1952 Birth of Jean-Paul Gaultier, French fashion designer

1952 Hans [Hendrik A] Kramers, physicist (quantum mechanics), dies at age 57.

1952 Jules Poncelet, Belgian minister of State, dies at age 82.

1953 Birth of John P Hiler; American politician (Representative-Republican-Indiana, 1981-).

1953 Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

1953 Winston Churchill knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

1954 Australia and USSR break diplomatic relations.

1954 Birth of Captain Sensible [Raymond Burns] in Balham, London, England; rocker ("Women and Captains First").

1954 First American, civilian pilot, P R Holden, wounded in Indochina.

1955 Alfred Polgar, Austrian writer/theater critic, dies at age 79.

1955 Bandung Conference ends: Twenty-nine non-aligned nations of Asia and Africa finish a meeting that condemned colonialism, racism, and the Cold War.

1955 Birth of Jack Kingston; American politician (Representative-Republican-Georgia).

1955 Conference of Bandung against colonialism, for self determination ends.

1955 Gaullists lose elections in France.

1956 American League umpire Frank Umont is first to wear glasses in a regular season game.

1957 Andries CD de Graeff, Governor-General of Netherlands Indies (1926-31), dies at age 84.

1957 Birth of David J, British musician

1957 Chicago Cubs' pitchers walk National League record nine Cincinnati Reds in 5th inning.

1958 Birth of Fernando Luna in Spain; tennis star.

1958 Lee Walls hits three homeruns, as Chicago Cubs beat Los Angeles Dodgers 15-2.

1959 Birth of Yvonne D Cagle in West Point, New York, USA; MD/astronaut.

1960 Birth of Paula Yates in London, England; rocker/writer (Blondes).

1960 Death of Max von Laue, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1879)

1960 Heavy earthquake strikes South Persia, 500 killed.

1960 John P "John" Musch, actor/founder (JM), dies at age 84.

1960 Louise Suggs wins LPGA Civitan Golf Open.

1960 Record four grand slams hit today.

1961 Bob Dylan earned a $50 session fee for playing harmonica on Harry Belafonte's "Midnight Special." It was his recording debut.

1961 The 17th century Swedish ship Vasa is salvaged.

1961 US President John Kennedy accepts "sole responsibility" following Bay of Pigs aborted invasion of Cuba.

1962 Birth of Stuart Pearce, English footballer and manager

1962 First Lockheed A-12 is taxi tested.

1962 MIT sends TV signal by satellite for first time: California to Massachusetts.

1962 Sandy Koufax's second 18-strikeout game.

1963 17th NBA Championship: Boston Celtics beat Los Angeles Lakers, 4 games to 2.

1963 Birth of Billy Gould in Los Angeles, California, USA; rock bassist (Faith No More).

1963 Boston Celtics' Bob Cousy retires.

1963 English princess Alexandra marries sir Angus Ogilvy.

1963 Marriage of Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Kent to Angus Ogilvy at Westminster Abbey in London.

1963 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1964 Birth of Cedric the Entertainer, American comedian and actor

1964 Death of Gerhard Domagk, German bacteriologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (declined) (b. 1895)

1964 Mexico becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.

1965 Birth of Mike Blowers in Wurlzburg, Germany; infielder (New York Yankees, Los Angeles Dodgers).

1965 Civil war breaks out in the Dominican Republic when civilians lead by some members of the armed forces, including Colonel Francisco Caamaño, overthrow the triumvirate that was in power since the coup d'Ttat on Juan Bosch, who was legally elected president in 1963.

1965 Death of Louise Dresser, American actress (b. 1878)

1965 Military coup under Donald Reid Cabral in Dominican Republic.

1965 New York Mets' Casey Stengel wins his 3,000th game as manager.

1966 Atlanta Braves win National League-record 18 straight home games (17 in Milwaukee).

1966 Birth of Margashayam Venkataramana; cricket player (Indian off-spinner 1989).

1966 Carol Mann wins LPGA Peach Blossom Golf Invitational.

1967 21st NBA Championship: Philadelphia 76ers beat San Francisco Warriors, 4 games to 2.

1967 Birth of Dino Radja; NBA forward (Boston Celtics).

1967 Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov dies in Soyuz 1, when the parachute fails to open. He was the first human to die during a space mission.

1967 Death of Vladimir Komarov, cosmonaut (b. 1927)

1967 Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland says in a news conference that the enemy had "gained support in the United States that gives him hope that he can win politically that which he cannot win militarily."

1967 Vladimir M Komarov, cosmonaut (Voshkod I), is first to die in space, aboard Soyuz 1 at age 40.

1968 ABC Masters Bowling Tournament won by Pete Tountas.

1968 Birth of Aaron Comes; rocker (Spin Doctors).

1968 Leftist students take over Columbia University, New York City, New York.

1968 Mauritius becomes a member state of the United Nations.

1968 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk.

1969 American B-52 bombers drop 3,000-ton bombs at Cambodian boundary.

1969 Lebanese army in battle with Palestinians.

1969 Paul McCartney says there is no truth to the rumours he is dead.

1970 Birth of Damien Fleming; Australian cricket pace bowler (hat-trick on Test debut).

1970 Gambia becomes a republic within the Commonwealth.

1970 Senegal adopts constitution.

1970 The first Chinese satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, is launched.

1970 The Gambia becomes a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, with Dawda Jawara as the first President.

1971 Birth of Jeff Brohm; quarterback (San Francisco 49ers).

1971 Soyuz 10 returns to Earth.

1972 Birth of Chipper Jones in Deland, Florida, USA; infielder (Atlanta Braves).

1973 Birth of Eric Snow; NBA guard (Philadelphia 76ers, Seattle Supersonics).

1974 Birth of Jared Tomich; defensive end (New Orleans Saints).

1974 Bud Abbott, comedian (Abbott and Costello), dies at age 78.

1974 Death of Bud Abbott, American actor and comedian (b. 1895)

1974 Dutch women's hockey team becomes world champion.

1974 NFL grants franchise to Tampa Bay (Buccaneers).

1975 Birth of Justin Boocock in Launceston, Australia; canoeist (Olympics-1996).

1975 The Baader-Meinhof Gang blow up the West German embassy in Stockholm.

1975 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1976 Birth of Sonya Jeyaseelan; New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada; tennis star (1995 Futures Florida).

1976 Mark Tobey, US abstract painter, (Broadway Norm), dies at age 85.

1977 Birth of Ryan Mitchell in Port Augusta, South Australia, Australia; swimmer (Olympics-1996).

1977 Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA American Defender Golf Tournament.

1978 Birth of Eric Balfour, American actor

1978 California Angels' Nolan Ryan strikes out 15 Mariners, 20th time he has 15 in game.

1979 Rhodesian bishop Muzorewa wins general election.

1980 Birth of Austin Nichols; American actor.

1980 Death of Alejo Carpentier, Cuban writer (born 1904).

1980 Eight U.S. servicemen died in Operation Eagle Claw as they attempted to end the Iran hostage crisis.

1980 The Pennsylvania Lottery is rigged by six men including the host of the live TV drawing, Nick Perry.

1980 (to April 25) Operation Eagle Claw, a US commando mission in Iran to rescue American embassy hostages, is aborted after mechanical problems ground the rescue helicopters. Eight United States troops are killed in a mid-air collision during the failed operation.

1981 Bill Shoemaker wins his 8000th race, 2000 more than any other jockey.

1981 San Antonio Spurs blocks 20 Golden State Warriors' shots to set NBA regulation game record.

1981 The first IBM PC is introduced.

1981 US ends grain embargo against USSR.

1982 150 Khomeini followers assault student dormitory in West Germany.

1982 Birth of Shayna Nackoney; Canadian synchronized swimmer.

1982 Death of Ville Ritola, Finnish athlete (b. 1896)

1982 Firestone World Bowling Tournament of Champions won by Mike Durbin.

1982 Saint Louis Cardinals win 12th game in a row; 7-4 over Philadelphia Phillies.

1982 The German singer Nicole wins the Eurovision Song Contest 1982 for Germany, with the song "Ein Bisschen Frieden".

1983 Austrian socialist party loses parliamentary election.

1983 Birth of Taio Cruz; British R&B singer.

1983 Hollis Stacy wins LPGA S&H Golf Classic.

1984 Birth of Tyson Ritter, American singer/bassist.

1984 Edmonton Oilers' Wayne Gretzky is third to score on a Stanley Cup penalty shot.

1984 In Morgan Hill, California, a magnitude 6.1 earthquake occurs.

1985 Birth of Kaori Nazuka, Japanese voice actress

1985 In Luzon, Philippine Islands, a magnitude 6.1 earthquake occurs.

1986 Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson (wife of King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, Duchess of Windsor) dies at age 89 (born 1896).

1986 Bill Edrich, cricket player (39 Tests for England), dies.

1986 Death of Wallis Simpson, American wife of Edward, Duke of Windsor (b. 1896)

1988 E S "Bob" Newson, cricket player (South African fast bowler in 1930s), dies.

1988 Rosie Jones wins LPGA USX Golf Classic.

1989 Massachusetts declares today "New Kids on the Block Day".

1989 Tens of thousands of students strike in Beijing, China.

1990 Gruinard Island, Scotland, is officially declared free of anthrax after 48 years of quarantine.

1990 Security law violator Michael Milken pleads guilty to six felonies.

1990 STS-31: The Hubble Space Telescope is launched by the Space Shuttle Discovery.

1990 West and East Germany agree to merge currency and economies on July 1.

1991 26th Academy of Country Music Awards: Garth Brooks wins.

1991 Freddie Stowers is awarded the posthumous Medal of Honor for which he had been recommended in 1918.

1991 J de Graaf, ethicus/president church and peace, dies.

1992 George Steinbrenner drops his lawsuits against baseball.

1993 1000kg heavy Irish Republican Army car bomb explodes in London, killing 1.

1993 An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of City of London.

1993 Death of Oliver Tambo, South African activist and politician (b. 1917)

1993 Firestone World Bowling Tournament of Champions won by George Branham.

1993 Oliver R Tambo, chairman (African National Congress), dies at age 75.

1994 Armando Calder=n Sol wins El Salvador presidential election.

1994 David Robinson scores ties 7th highest total in the NBA - 71.

1994 New York Rangers sweep New York Islanders in NHL playoffs.

1995 Douglas Gunsekera, banker, dies at age 77.

1995 Dow Jones Industrial Average hits record 4303.98.

1995 Package bomb, linked to Unabomber, blows up killing lobbyist Gilbert B Murray in Sacramento, California.

1996 31st Academy of Country Music Awards: Shania Twain wins.

1996 Highest scoring baseball game in 17 years - Minnesota Twins 24, Detroit Tigers 11.

1996 In the United States, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is introduced.

1997 Death of Pat Paulsen, American comedian and politician (b. 1927)

1998 Birth of Ryan Newman, American actress.

2001 Death of Al Hibbler, American singer (b. 1915)

2004 Death of EstTe Lauder, American cosmetics entrepreneur (born 1906).

2004 Referendums on the Annan Plan for Cyprus, which proposes to re-unite the island of Cyprus, take place in both the Republic of Cyprus controlled and the Turkish controlled parts. Although the Turkish Cypriots vote in favour, the Greek Cypriots reject the proposal.

2004 US lifts economic sanctions imposed on Libya, 18 years previously as a reward for its cooperation in eliminating weapons of mass destruction.

2005 Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is inaugurated as the 265th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church taking the name Pope Benedict XVI.

2005 Death of Ezer Weizman, President of Israel (born 1924).

2006 Death of Nasreen Huq, Bangladeshi social worker and human rights activist (born 1958).

2006 In Panama, a referendum on the Third Set of Locks Project is approved by 76.8 percent.

2006 King of Nepal, King Gyanendra gives into the demands of the protesters and restores the parliament that he dissolved in 2002.

2006 Three explosions in a tourist section of Dahab, Egypt kill 30 and injure over 115.

2007 Abortion is legalized in Mexico City, Mexico.

2007 Gliese 581 c, a potentially habitable Earth-like extrasolar planet, is discovered in the constellation Libra.

2009 In Baghdad, Iraq, two female suicide bombers blow themselves up outside the Imam Moussa al-Kadhim Shi'ite Muslim shrine, killing 60 people, wounding at least 125 people.

2010 The U.S. Coast Guard discovers that an estimated 1000 barrels per day of oil is leaking from the damaged well underneath the rig that exploded off Louisiana's shore on April 20.