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The Spanish-American War in 1898 had US warfare in the Philippines and Cuba. Hawaii’s position as a naval base in the middle of the Pacific Ocean made the unlawful annexation of Hawaii a crime with apparent strong motivation.
The US unilaterally claimed sovereign military authority in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War in 1898. Philippine leadership claimed the US promised independence on multiple occasions and reneged. Emilio Aguinaldo, the Philippine’s first president and leader of their revolution against Spanish imperialism:
“In reply, the [US] Consul said he would telegraph about this matter to Admiral Dewey, who was, he said, Commander-in-Chief of the squadron which would invade the Philippines, and who had, he also stated, full powers conferred on him by President McKinley.